Om
Søkestrenger
Web of Science søkestreng
Action
Action: SDG 03

Search query for SDG 3 - Good health and well-being, Bergen action-approach.

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Current status: This string is currently a finished version.

Contents

  1. Full query in copy-pasteable format
  2. General notes
  3. Documentation and string sections for each target
  4. Contributions
  5. Footnotes

1. Full query

Results of the full search in its current state can be viewed on Web of Science by clicking here: https://www.webofscience.com/wos/woscc/summary/58bf1ebe-162b-4bb7-b3bf-6f640d7521cc-57b43974/relevance/1 (opens in a new tab) (no filters; all years)

2. General notes

This document contains search strings for finding publications related to the actions in the SDG 3 targets and indicators ("action approach"; focus on precision, smaller result set). We also have a version which finds publications related to the topics in the SDG 3 targets and indicators ("topic approach"; focus on recall, larger result set), provided in the same repository as this file. For more explanation, see the Readme in this repository.

Targets and Indicators were found from the UN Statistics Division (Statistics Division, 2021). This list includes "the global indicator framework as contained in A/RES/71/313, the refinements agreed by the Statistical Commission at its 49th session in March 2018 (E/CN.3/2018/2, Annex II) and 50th session in March 2019 (E/CN.3/2019/2, Annex II), changes from the 2020 Comprehensive Review (E/CN.3/2020/2, Annex II) and refinements (E/CN.3/2020/2, Annex III) from the 51st session in March 2020, and refinements from the 52nd session in March 2021 (E/CN.3/2021/2, Annex)". (https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/indicators-list/ (opens in a new tab))

Our classification of countries as least developed countries (LDCs), small island developing states (SIDS) and landlocked developing states (LDS) is taken from the Statistical Annex of United Nations World Economic Situation and Prospects (tables F, H and I) (United Nations, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021). Additional terms for these countries, generic terms for country groups, and terms for low and middle income countries (LMICs) were gathered from the LMIC 2020 filter from the Norwegian Satellite of Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC), developed by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath (https://epoc.cochrane.org/lmic-filters (opens in a new tab)).

During editing of this string (2021), we have consulted two other sets of queries for reference: Aurora Universities network (2020) and Rivest et al. (2021).

Abbreviations

3. Targets

Target 3.1

3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.

3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio

3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

The target is interpreted as covering research about reducing the maternal mortality rate. The interpretation is limited to reducing mortality as this is what is stated in both targets, rather than care/health generally - attendance of skilled health personnel is interpreted as one way to limit mortality, and should be covered if authors connect their work to this aim.

This query consists of 1 phrase.

Phrase 1

The basic structure is mothers/birth + mortality + action + excluding livestock. Originally, a second phrase was added for "improve survival", but this mostly added noise - many results were about babies rather than mothers, and others were about "maternal" effects in animals.

Some of the mothers/birth terms may find results concerning newborn mortality, this is difficult to avoid and may lead to some overlap with 3.2. Many works also talk about both maternal and neonatal mortality together. As both are in the same SDG this should not be an issue for SDG sets.

For the action terms: Having some terms with a wide NEAR/15 interval helps to find results which talk reducing mortality via a factor: e.g. "xyz is a leading cause of maternal mortality. We examine how xyz can be prevented....". lower, limited and limits are not included in the action terms due to general use (e.g. "limited understanding"). mortality is paired with improve due to the formulation "improved mortality rates". prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

A double NOT expression is included to help remove results referring to mortality of livestock, but retain those referring to these animals as models for humans. Rats and mice are not in the NOT statement as these are usually animal models for humans.

TS=
(
  (   
    ("pregnan*" OR "post partum" OR "postpartum" OR "peripartum" OR "obstetric$"
    OR "childbirth" OR "child-birth" OR "birth" OR "births"
    OR "premature deliver*" OR "preterm deliver*" OR "preterm labor" OR "preterm labour"
    OR "maternal" OR "mothers"
    )
    NEAR/15
        (
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$")
            NEAR/5
                ("lowering" OR "lowered" OR "lower$" OR "limit" OR "limiting")
          )
          OR
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$")
            NEAR/15
                ("improv*" OR "prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "eliminat*" OR "avoid*" OR "intervention$")
          )
        )
  )
  NOT (("pigs" OR "cows" OR "sheep" OR "cattle" OR "poultry") NOT ("human" OR "model"))    
)

Target 3.2

3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

3.2.1 Under‑5 mortality rate

3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate

This target is interpreted to cover research about reducing mortality for young children and newborns. Children "under five" is however extremely difficult to limit via terms since it is often referred to as childhood mortality - thus we include terms for children and infants generally.

This query consists of 2 phrases.

Phrase 1

The basic structure is children/babies + mortality + action + excluding livestock. prevent*, preterm and premature are not used, as they generally (when used without reference to births/newborns) refer to "preventable deaths"/"premature death".

TS=
(
  (   
    ("child*" OR "infant$" OR "toddler$" OR "under-five$"
    OR "baby" OR "babies" OR "newborn$" OR "neonatal" OR "neonate$"
    OR "perinatal" OR "prenatal" OR "antenatal"
    )
    NEAR/15
        (
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$" OR "stillbirth$" OR "still-birth$")
            NEAR/5
                ("lowering" OR "lowered" OR "lower$" OR "limit" OR "limiting")
          )
          OR
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$" OR "stillbirth$" OR "still-birth$")
            NEAR/15
                ("improv*" OR "prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "eliminat*" OR "avoid*" OR "intervention$")
          )
        )
  )
  NOT (("pigs" OR "cows" OR "sheep" OR "cattle" OR "poultry") NOT ("human" OR "model"))    
)

Phrase 2

Phrase 2 finds publications using the opposite terminology of phrase 1 (i.e. reduce mortality = increase survival). The basic structure is children/babies + survival + action + excluding livestock. The term "survivor" is a bit tricky, as it is used about reducing mortality (e.g. "cancer survivors") but also in the context of abuse ("child abuse survivor"). Thus results around this topic may also be included; we did not consider them far enough from the interpretation to warrant using a NOT search that could potentially lose relevant results.

TS=
(
  (   
    ("child*" OR "infant$" OR "toddler$" OR "under-five$"
    OR "baby" OR "babies" OR "newborn$" OR "neonatal" OR "neonate$"
    OR "perinatal" OR "prenatal" OR "antenatal"
    )
    NEAR/15
      ("surviv*"
      NEAR/5 ("improv*" OR "increas*" OR "enhanc*" OR "intervention$")
      )
  )
  NOT (("pigs" OR "porcine" OR "cows" OR "sheep" OR "cattle" OR "poultry" OR "newborn cell") NOT ("human" OR "model"))   
)

Target 3.3

3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.

3.3.1 Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations

3.3.2 Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population

3.3.3 Malaria incidence per 1,000 population

3.3.4 Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population

3.3.5 Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases

The target is interpreted to include research which talks about combating / end epidemics of communicable and waterborne diseases. We interpret "ending epidemics", to include research on ending epidemics/pandemics, along with general works about controlling spread/transmission. We interpret "combating" to mean reducing the occurrence and effects of these diseases, i.e. research about improving control, reducing transmission, preventing, treating, and developing novel treatments/vaccines.

This query consists of 3 phrases.

Action terms: limited was removed from the action terms, as it was used often in other contexts (e.g. "limited data"). Although vaccination may find some results on vaccine side effects, it also finds works on vaccination from a host of relevant perspectives (e.g. programs, barriers, hesitancy) - an alternative approach would be to add a near statement including all these terms.

Phrase 1

This covers communicable diseases as a category. The basic structure is communicable diseases + (action OR action + epidemics/interventions). The search terms here are difficult, as communicable will also find non communicable, thus this term is covered in its own phrase where a double NOT expression is used to remove publications mentioning non-communciable disease without also mentioning infectious, communicable and tropical diseases ("non communicable" seems to be the term causing the most problems; others, such as non-infectious seem to be used in papers about both, i.e. together with infectious - these are covered in phrase 2). This cuts the results for the last 5 years by about 75 %, compared to allowing "non-communicable" to be found.

prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS =
(
  (
    ("communicable disease$" OR "communicable illness*")
    NEAR/15
        ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "fight*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*"
        OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending"
        OR "treat" OR "cure" OR "cured" OR "vaccinate" OR "control"
        OR
          (
            ("stop" OR "stopped" OR "stopping" OR "limit" OR "limiting")
            NEAR/3 ("epidemic$" OR "pandemic$" OR "outbreak$" OR "spread" OR "transmission" OR "occurrence" OR "incidence" OR "prevalence" OR "risk$" OR "rate$")
          )
        OR
          (
            ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "increas*" OR "promot*"
            OR "program*" OR "develop*" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new"
            )
            NEAR/5 ("medicine$" OR "vaccin*" OR "drug$" OR "cures" OR "treatment$" OR "intervention$" OR "therap*" OR "detection" OR "diagnosis")
          )
        )
  )
  NOT ("non communicable" NOT ("infectious disease$" OR "tropical disease$" OR "non communicable and communicable" OR "communicable and non communicable"))
)

Phrase 2

The general structure is communicable diseases + generic action. In this phrase, specific diseases and groups of diseases are covered. The disease terms are the same as in phrase 3.

In the communicable disease terms, specific diseases were added from sources outlined below, plus a WHOs factsheet on leading causes of death in 2019 (WHO, 2020c).

  • The first section covers communicable and waterborne diseases as a category (see also Phrase 1).
  • The second section covers specific communicable & vaccine-preventable diseases. hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV, malaria are taken directly from the target. The term aids is combined with prevent aids as it is used as a verb. We then used WHO Global Health Observatory data for adding specific communicable (WHO, n.d. a) and vaccine-preventable diseases (WHO, n.d. b). Here, they are listed according to SDG target; those under target 3.3. were included. This also included the category sexually transmitted infections. Diseases were also added from a WHO list of epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases (Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, n.d.). SARS covers also "SARS-CoV-2" (covid-19).
  • The third section is for waterborne diseases. A definitive list of prioritised "waterborne diseases" was not found and the MeSH term has no specific diseases; as a way to improve the query, we have used 11 diseases/pathogens prioritised by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Waterborne Diseases Prevention Branch (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021).
  • The fourth section lists neglected tropical diseases, as mentioned in the target. The 20 diseases/disease groups currently prioritised by WHO in their 2021-2030 roadmap are included (p. 2, WHO, 2020a).

A number of these diseases also occur in animals (e.g. Feline/Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Canine hepatitis, Avian malaria, Bovine tuberculosis). We do not attempt to exclude them, as it is considered that work on them can inform human prevention/treatment, or prevent zoonotic transmission. prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS =
(
  (
    (
      ("water borne" OR "waterborne" OR "water-borne" OR "water-related" OR "diarrhoea*" OR "diarrhea*"
      OR "contagious" OR "transmissible" OR "infectious"
      )
      NEAR/5
          ("disease$" OR "infection$" OR "epidemic$" OR "illness*")
    )
    OR "hepatitis"
    OR "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" OR "acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome"  OR "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" OR "Human Immunodeficiency Virus" OR "HIV" OR "prevent aids"
    OR "tuberculosis"
    OR "malaria"
    OR "cholera"
    OR "meningitis"
    OR "influenza" OR "avian influenza" OR "H5N1"
    OR "rubella"
    OR "diphtheria"
    OR "japanese encephalitis"
    OR "measles"
    OR "mumps"
    OR "tetanus"
    OR "pertussis"
    OR "polio*"
    OR "yellow fever"
    OR "sexually transmitted disease$" OR "sexually transmitted infection$"
    OR "syphilis"
    OR "lower respiratory infection$"
    OR "coronavirus" OR "covid" OR "covid19" OR "middle east respiratory syndrome" OR "MERS" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome" OR "SARS"
    OR "crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever" OR "viral haemorrhagic fever$"
    OR "ebola"
    OR "plague"
    OR "rift valley fever"
    OR "zika virus"
 
    OR "amebiasis"
    OR "cryptosporidiosis" OR "cryptosporidium infection$"
    OR "giardiasis" OR "giardia infection$"
    OR "shigellosis"
    OR "cronobacter infection$"
    OR "acanthamoeba"
    OR "balamuthia"
    OR "naegleria"
    OR "sappinia"
    OR "typhoid"
 
    OR "neglected tropical disease$"
    OR "buruli ulcer"
    OR "chagas"
    OR "dengue"
    OR "chikungunya"
    OR "dracunculiasis" OR "guinea-worm disease"
    OR "echinococcosis"
    OR "foodborne trematodiases"
    OR "human african trypanosomiasis" OR "sleeping sickness"
    OR "leishmaniasis"
    OR "leprosy"
    OR "lymphatic filariasis"
    OR "mycetoma" OR "chromoblastomycosis" OR "deep mycoses"
    OR "onchocerciasis" OR "river blindness"
    OR "rabies"
    OR "scabies"
    OR "schistosomiasis"
    OR "soil-transmitted helminthias*" OR "hookworm$" OR "roundworm$" OR "whipworm$" OR "Ascaris lumbricoides" OR "Trichuris trichiura" OR "Necator americanus" OR "Ancylostoma duodenale"
    OR "snakebite envenoming"
    OR "taeniasis" OR "cysticercosis"
    OR "trachoma"
    OR "yaws"
  )
  NEAR/5
      ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "fight*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*"
      OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending"
      OR "treat" OR "cure" OR "cured" OR "vaccinate" OR "control"
      )
)
 

Phrase 3

The general structure is communicable diseases + action + epidemics/interventions. This phrase is a complement to phrase 2, where the same diseases but generic actions are covered. This phrase is separated from phrase 2 because the epidemic/intervention can be combined with AND rather than needing NEAR. prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS =
(
  (
    (
      ("water borne" OR "waterborne" OR "water-borne" OR "water-related" OR "diarrhoea*" OR "diarrhea*"
      OR "contagious" OR "transmissible" OR "infectious"
      )
      NEAR/5
          ("disease$" OR "infection$" OR "epidemic$" OR "illness*")
    )
    OR "hepatitis"
    OR "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" OR "acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome"  OR "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" OR "Human Immunodeficiency Virus" OR "HIV"
    OR "tuberculosis"
    OR "malaria"
    OR "cholera"
    OR "meningitis"
    OR "influenza" OR "avian influenza" OR "H5N1"
    OR "rubella"
    OR "diphtheria"
    OR "japanese encephalitis"
    OR "measles"
    OR "mumps"
    OR "tetanus"
    OR "pertussis"
    OR "polio*"
    OR "yellow fever"
    OR "sexually transmitted disease$" OR "sexually transmitted infection$"
    OR "syphilis"
    OR "lower respiratory infection$"
    OR "coronavirus" OR "covid" OR "middle east respiratory syndrome" OR "MERS" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome" OR "SARS"
    OR "crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever" OR "viral haemorrhagic fever$"
    OR "ebola"
    OR "plague"
    OR "rift valley fever"
    OR "zika virus"
 
    OR "amebiasis"
    OR "cryptosporidiosis" OR "cryptosporidium infection$"
    OR "giardiasis" OR "giardia infection$"
    OR "shigellosis"
    OR "cronobacter infection$"
    OR "acanthamoeba"
    OR "balamuthia"
    OR "naegleria"
    OR "sappinia"
    OR "typhoid"
 
    OR "neglected tropical disease$"
    OR "buruli ulcer"
    OR "chagas"
    OR "dengue"
    OR "chikungunya"
    OR "dracunculiasis" OR "guinea-worm disease"
    OR "echinococcosis"
    OR "foodborne trematodiases"
    OR "human african trypanosomiasis" OR "sleeping sickness"
    OR "leishmaniasis"
    OR "leprosy"
    OR "lymphatic filariasis"
    OR "mycetoma" OR "chromoblastomycosis" OR "deep mycoses"
    OR "onchocerciasis" OR "river blindness"
    OR "rabies"
    OR "scabies"
    OR "schistosomiasis"
    OR "soil-transmitted helminthias*" OR "hookworm$" OR "roundworm$" OR "whipworm$" OR "Ascaris lumbricoides" OR "Trichuris trichiura" OR "Necator americanus" OR "Ancylostoma duodenale"
    OR "snakebite envenoming"
    OR "taeniasis" OR "cysticercosis"
    OR "trachoma"
    OR "yaws"
  )
  AND
      (    
        (
          ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "fight*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "reduc*" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*" OR "limit" OR "limiting" OR "decreas*"
          OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending"
          OR "stop" OR "stopped" OR "stopping" OR "control" OR "treat" OR "vaccinate"
          )
          NEAR/3
              ("epidemic$" OR "pandemic$" OR "outbreak$" OR "spread" OR "transmission" OR "occurrence" OR "incidence" OR "prevalence" OR "risk$" OR "rate$")
        )
      OR
        (
          ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "increas*" OR "promot*"
          OR "program*" OR "develop*" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new"
          )
          NEAR/5
              ("medicine$" OR "vaccin*" OR "drug$" OR "cures" OR "cure" OR "treatment$" OR "drug$" OR "intervention$" OR "therap*"
              OR "antimalarial$" OR "antiviral$" OR "antibiotic$" OR "antiparasitic$" OR "antihelminthic$" OR "antihelmintic$"
              )
        )
      )
)

Target 3.4

3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.

3.4.1 Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease

3.4.2 Suicide mortality rate

This target is interpreted to cover research about reducing mortality from non-communicable diseases. In contrast to 3.3, here there is an explicit focus on reducing mortality in the target, indicators and the High-level Political Forum thematic review for SDG 3 (ECESA plus members, 2017), therefore we limit our interpretation to this. We interpret it also to cover research about treating/improving treatment for mental health disorders and promoting/improving support services for well-being.

This query consists of 3 phrases. Phrase 1 focuses on the "non-communicable diseases" part. Phrases 2 and 3 focus on the "promote mental health and well-being" part.

Phrase 1

The structure is non-communicable diseases + mortality + action. We added diseases from the WHO factsheet on non-communicable diseases (WHO, 2018) and a WHO factsheet on leading causes of death in 2019 (WHO, 2020c). Cancer terms were based on "The Cancer Dictionary" in the WHO Cancer Mortality Database (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2019) and using nomenclature as explained by the U.S. National Cancer Institute SEER training modules (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).

A tighter NEAR distance is used for some action terms due to other uses (e.g. lower needs a tighter combination to avoid e.g. "cancer of the lower intestine"). prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS=
(
  (
    (
      ("non communicable" OR "noncommunicable" OR "non transmissible" OR "non infectious" OR "noninfectious")
      NEAR/5
          ("disease$" OR "illness*")
    )
    OR "cardiovascular disease$" OR "heart disease" OR "heart attack$" OR "stroke$"
    OR "diabetes"
    OR "chronic respiratory disease$" OR "asthma"  OR "emphysema" OR "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease$" OR "COPD" OR "chronic obstructive airway disease$" OR "chronic bronchitis"
    OR (("chronic") NEAR/3 ("lung" OR "pulmonary"))
    OR "cancer$" OR "*sarcoma" OR "sarcoma$" OR "*carcinoma" OR "carcinoma$" OR "*blastoma" OR "blastoma$" OR "myeloma$" OR "lymphoma$" OR "leukaemia" OR "leukemia" OR "mesothelioma$" OR "melanoma$"  
    OR (("malignant" OR "incurable") NEAR/3 ("neoplasm$" OR "tumour$" OR "tumor$"))
    OR "kidney disease$"
    OR "alzheimer*" OR "dementia"
    OR "cirrhosis"
  )
  NEAR/15
      (
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$")
            NEAR/5
                ("lowering" OR "lowered" OR "lower$" OR "limit" OR "limiting")
          )
        OR
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$")
            NEAR/15
                ("improv*" OR "prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "eliminat*" OR "avoid*" OR "intervention$")
          )
        OR
          ("surviv*"
          NEAR/5 ("improv*" OR "increas*" OR "enhanc*" OR "intervention$")
          )
      )
)
 

Phrase 2

This phrase focuses on non-communicable mental illnesses/diseases. The general structure is disease + prevention/treatment + action.

Generic categories and specific conditions are included. suicid* was mentioned specifically in the indicators. We used WHO factsheets to add types of mental disorders (WHO, 2019a). As the focus this phrase is illness, we did not include developmental disorders. prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS=
(
  ("mental health disorder$" OR "mental illness*"
  OR "suicid*"
  OR "depression" OR "depressive disorder$"
  OR "bipolar affective disorder"
  OR "schizophrenia"
  OR "psychosis" OR "psychoses"
  )
  NEAR/15
      ("prevent*" OR "combat*" OR "fight*" OR "reduc*" OR "alleviat*" OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "tackl*"
      OR "treat" OR "cure" OR "cured"
      OR
        (
          ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "fight*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "reduc*" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*" OR "limit" OR "limiting" OR "decreas*"
          OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending"
          OR "stop" OR "stopped" OR "stopping" OR "control" OR "treat" OR "vaccinate"
          )
          NEAR/3
              ("epidemic$" OR "occurrence" OR "incidence" OR "prevalence" OR "risk$" OR "rate$")
        )
      OR
        (
          ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "increas*" OR "promot*"
          OR "program*" OR "develop*" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new"
          )
          NEAR/5
              ("medicine$" OR "vaccin*" OR "drug$" OR "cures" OR "cure" OR "treatment$" OR "drug$" OR "intervention$" OR "therap*"
              OR "outreach" OR "services" OR "support" OR "counseling" OR "counselling"
              )
        )
      )
)

Phrase 3

This phrase focuses on the promotion of well-being. The general structure is well-being + promoting/action+services.

wellbeing is used alone, rather than qualified with "mental" - well-being seems to be used to convey a sense of overall health, which should include the mental/psychosocial aspect. quality of life was tested, but this adds a lot of results which seem to be more medical (i.e. quality of life could be improved after intervention x for condition y). increas* was removed as an action term for mental health as it tends to be used in other ways (e.g. "increasing demand for services", "increasingly in focus").

TS=
(
  ("mental health" OR "well being" OR "wellbeing")
  NEAR/5
      ("promot*" OR "strengthen*" OR "improv*" OR "enhanc*"
      OR (("reduc*" OR "decreas*") NEAR/5 "problem$")
      OR
          (
            ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "increas*" OR "promot*"
            OR "program*" OR "develop*" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new"
            )
            NEAR/5
              ("medicine$" OR "vaccin*" OR "drug$" OR "cures" OR "cure" OR "treatment$" OR "drug$" OR "intervention$" OR "therap*"
              OR "outreach" OR "services" OR "support" OR "counseling" OR "counselling"
              )
          )
      )  
)

Target 3.5

3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.

3.5.1 Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders

3.5.2 Alcohol per capita consumption (aged 15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol

This target was interpreted to include research about strengthening the prevention and treatment of harmful uses of alcohol and drugs. It does not cover all use of alcohol/drugs. We also interpret this to be mainly limited to works about reducing use, rather than e.g. controlling supply of illicit drugs.

This query consists of 1 phrase. The basic structure is harmful use + action/prevention OR harmful use + action + treatment.

Terms were added from the National Institutes of Health "Commonly Used Drugs Charts" (although this is a USA-centric source we assume it will cover many types; National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2020). Drug/substances were also expanded using MeSH terms:

  • Under "opioid-related disorders" (D000079524), heroin, morphine, opiate and opium are listed.
  • Under "substance-related disorders" (D019966), a number of specific substances are listed, including amphetamine, cocaine, inhalent, tobacco etc.

addiction and dependence were considered as terms that can indicate harmful use. A number of drugs are combined with these terms because either a) they can be used in non-abuse contexts as treatments, or b) there is a lot of research about their effects (e.g. "cocaine can reduce the heart's...").

therapy OR therapies rather than therap* was used to prevent results regarding the therapeutic uses of these drugs/substances. The broad term services is used due to the variety of services involved (social, specialist, alcoholism, treatment, residential...). treatment$ should cover not only treatment, but also treatment centres. prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention.

TS=
(
  ("binge drinking" OR "binge drinker$" OR "alcoholism" OR "excessive drinking" OR "problematic drinking"
  OR "substance use" OR "illicit drug$" OR "people who inject drugs" OR "PWID"
  OR "opioid epidemic"
  OR
    (
      ("drug$" OR "narcotic$" OR "narcotic$" OR "substance"
      OR "alcohol"
      OR "amphetamine$" OR "methamphetamine$" OR "MDMA" OR "ecstasy"
      OR "cocaine"
      OR "inhalant$" OR "amyl nitrite"
      OR "marijuana" OR "cannabis"
      OR "opioid$" OR "opiate$" OR "heroin" OR "morphine"
      OR "phencyclidine" OR "LSD" OR "psilocybin" OR "dimethyltriptamine"
      OR "khat"
      OR "tobacco"
      )
      NEAR/5
          ("abuse" OR "misuse" OR "dependence" OR "addict*" OR "overdose$"
          OR
            (
              ("use" OR "uses" OR "usage" OR "consumption")
              NEAR/3 ("harmful" OR "problematic" OR "excessive" OR "disorder$")    
            )
          )
    )
  )
  NEAR/5
      ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "fight* against"
      OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "limit" OR "limiting" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*"
      OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending" OR "stop" OR "stopped" OR "stopping"
      OR "treat" OR "cure" OR "cured" OR "control"
      )
)
OR
TS=
(
  ("binge drinking" OR "binge drinker$" OR "alcoholism" OR "excessive drinking" OR "problematic drinking"
  OR "substance use" OR "illicit drug$" OR "people who inject drugs" OR "PWID"
  OR "opioid epidemic"
  OR
    (
      ("drug$" OR "narcotic$" OR "narcotic$" OR "substance"
      OR "alcohol"
      OR "amphetamine$" OR "methamphetamine$" OR "MDMA" OR "ecstasy"
      OR "cocaine"
      OR "inhalant$" OR "amyl nitrite"
      OR "marijuana" OR "cannabis"
      OR "opioid$" OR "opiate$" OR "heroin" OR "morphine"
      OR "phencyclidine" OR "LSD" OR "psilocybin" OR "dimethyltriptamine"
      OR "khat"
      OR "tobacco"
      )
      NEAR/5
          ("abuse" OR "misuse" OR "dependence" OR "addict*" OR "overdose$"
          OR
            (
              ("use" OR "uses" OR "usage" OR "consumption")
              NEAR/3 ("harmful" OR "problematic" OR "excessive" OR "disorder$")    
            )
          )
    )
  )
  NEAR/15
      (
          ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "increas*" OR "promot*"
          OR "program*" OR "develop*" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new"
          )  
          NEAR/5
              ("medicine$" OR "cures" OR "cure" OR "treatment$" OR "intervention$" OR "therapy" OR "therapies"
              OR "outreach" OR "services" OR "support" OR "rehabilitat*" OR "aftercare" OR "counseling" OR "counselling"
              )
      )
)

Target 3.6

3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.

3.6.1 Death rate due to road traffic injuries

This target is interpreted to cover research about reducing deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents. Improvement to road/vehicle safety generally is not considered relevant unless it is connected to health - the reducing injury/death focus is evident in the target and the High-level Political Forum thematic review for SDG 3 (ECESA plus members, 2017). Improving road safety generally is covered in SDG 11.2.

This query consists of 1 phrase. Originally, a second phrase was included about improving survival , however the relevant results are minimal; the majority discussing survival are not about road traffic safety (instead about e.g. biomedical, or wildlife).

The basic structure is traffic/road users + mortality/morbidity + action

In the action terms, limit$ is not included (only limiting) as mostly used for city limits or speed limits. improv* was added as an action term - although the focus is on reducing accidents, a number of works talk about e.g. "improving mortality outcomes". prevent* is not used to reduce results generally talking about "preventable deaths", rather than prevention. In the traffic terms, vehicle OR driver OR car OR cars are combined with accident OR crash... because these terms are used in a biomedical or general context not to do with traffic (e.g. "xyz works as a vehicle for delivery of the drug"; "car T cells"; "x is a driver of y"). intersection$ was considered but removed as it mostly added noise from metaphorical use of intersection (e.g. between two subject areas).

TS =
(
  (
      ("traffic" OR "road" OR "roads" OR "roadway$" OR "street$" OR "roundabout$" OR "highway$" OR "motorway$"
      OR "cycling lane$" OR "cycle path$" OR "bicycle lane$" OR "walkway$" OR "walking path$" OR "sidewalk$" OR "pavement$"
      OR "bicycle$" OR "motorcycle$" OR "motorbike$" OR "automobile$" OR "buses" OR "bus" OR "lorry" OR "lorries" OR "truck$" OR "HGV$" OR "SUV$"
      OR "pedestrian$" OR "cyclist$"
      OR "driving fatalities"
      OR (("vehicle$" OR "driver$" OR "driving" OR "car" OR "cars") NEAR/15 ("accident$" OR "crash*" OR "collision$" OR "traffic" OR "RTI" OR "RTIs"))
      )
      AND
          (
            ("mortality" OR "death$" OR "fatalities" OR "fatal" OR "deadly"
            OR "morbidity" OR "injury" OR "injuries" OR "road trauma$" OR "RTI" OR "RTIs"
            )
            NEAR/5
                ("prevent$" OR "preventing" OR "prevention" OR "prevented" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "fight*"
                OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "lowering" OR "lowered" OR "limiting" OR "alleviat*" OR "mitigat*"
                OR "eradicat*" OR "eliminat*" OR "end" OR "ended" OR "ending" OR "stop" OR "stopped" OR "stopping"
                OR "treat" OR "avoid*" OR "improv*"
                OR
                  (
                      ("improv*" OR "better" OR "enhanc*" OR "more efficient" OR "research*" OR "novel" OR "new")  
                      NEAR/5
                          ("treatment$" OR "intervention$" OR "therapy" OR "therapies" OR "first aid")
                  )
                )
          )
  )
  NOT ("air traffic" OR "boat traffic")
)
 

Target 3.7

3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes

3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods

3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group

This target is interpreted to cover research about:

  • improving access to sexual health services and family planning
  • improving access to education and information about sexual health and family planning
  • the coverage/implementation of reproductive health/sexual health in national strategies and programmes.

This query consists of 2 phrases.

Phrase 1

The basic structure is reproductive health/education + access + action

Originally, reproductive health terms were combined with service/information terms ("support" OR "service$" OR "program*" OR "right$" OR "facility" OR "facilities" OR "hospital$" OR "clinic$" OR "treatment" OR "checkup$" OR "check up$" OR "healthcare" OR "care" OR "aftercare" OR "information" OR "education"). However, a wide variety of terms are used, and sometimes no terms at all. When reproductive health terms are combined with access terms, the results are mostly discussing some sort of service/education/communication, so the service/information terms were dropped as an unnecessary restriction.

Terms such as reproductive health will cover reproductive health care / health services etc.. abortion is included as part of reproductive health, according to WHO ("Access to legal, safe and comprehensive abortion care, including post-abortion care, is essential for the attainment of the highest possible level of sexual and reproductive health"; (WHO, n.d. c).

Here, right$ is included as "right to reproductive health" encompasses access to services/education/information about this. health equity also covers ideas around access (from "Equity is the absence of avoidable, unfair, or remediable differences among groups of people, whether those groups are defined socially, economically, demographically or geographically or by other means of stratification. "Health equity” or “equity in health” implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential" (WHO, n.d. d). Health for all refers to a movement/strategy of WHO sometimes still referenced, and is wider than only the healthcare aspect, but involves the idea of bringing of health to everyone (WHO, 1981).

TS =
(
  ("reproductive health" OR "sexual health" OR "reproductive healthcare" OR "sexual healthcare"
  OR "family planning" OR "planned pregnanc*" OR "contracept*" OR "abortion$"
  OR (("reproduct*" OR "sex*" OR "STI") NEAR/5 ("education" OR "inform*" OR "health literacy"))
  )
  NEAR/15
      ("health equity" OR "equity in health*" OR "health for all"
      OR
        (
          ("access*" OR "right$" OR "coverage"
          OR "afford" OR "affordab*" OR "low cost" OR "free of charge" OR "free service$" OR "subsidi*"
          )
          NEAR/5
            ("increas*" OR "enhanc*" OR "universal"
            OR "expand*" OR "provide" OR "providing" OR "provision" OR "promot*" OR "ensur*"
            OR "improv*" OR "support*" OR "advoca*" OR "address*" OR "fight*"
            OR "policy" OR "policies" OR "initiative$" OR "framework$" OR "program*" OR "strateg*"
            )
        )
      OR
        (
          ("barrier$" OR "obstacle$" OR "impediment$" OR "unaffordab*" OR "expensive")
          NEAR/5
            ("dismant*" OR "remov*" OR "combat" OR "fight*" OR "overcome"
            OR "improv*" OR "support*" OR "advoca*" OR "address*" OR "fight*"
            OR "policy" OR "policies" OR "initiative$" OR "framework$" OR "program*" OR "strateg*"
            )
        )
      )
)       

Phrase 2

The basic structure is reproductive health + national programmes + action. Here we have included LMICs and LDCs as "synonyms" for national; this provides over double the number of relevant results, as works often refer to e.g. "...implementation of a reproductive health programme in Tunisia".

TS =
(
  ("reproductive health" OR "sexual health" OR "reproductive healthcare" OR "sexual healthcare"
  OR "family planning" OR "planned pregnanc*" OR "contracept*" OR "abortion$"
  OR (("reproduct*" OR "sex*" OR "STI") NEAR/5 ("education" OR "inform*" OR "health literacy"))
  )
  NEAR/15
    (
      (
         ("policy" OR "policies" OR "initiative$" OR "framework$" OR "program*" OR "strateg*")
         NEAR/5
            ("national" OR "state" OR "federal"
            OR "albania*" OR "algeria*" OR "angola*" OR "argentina*" OR "azerbaijan*" OR "bahrain*" OR "belarus*" OR "byelarus*" OR "belorussia" OR "belize*" OR "honduras" OR "honduran" OR "dahomey" OR "bosnia*" OR "herzegovina*" OR "botswana*" OR "bechuanaland" OR "brazil*" OR "brasil*" OR "bulgaria*" OR "upper volta" OR "kampuchea" OR "khmer republic" OR "cameroon*" OR "cameroun" OR "ubangi shari" OR "chile*" OR "china" OR "chinese" OR "colombia*" OR "costa rica*" OR "cote d’ivoire" OR "cote divoire" OR "cote d ivoire" OR "ivory coast" OR "croatia*" OR "cyprus" OR "cypriot" OR "czech" OR "ecuador*" OR "egypt*" OR "united arab republic" OR "el salvador*" OR "estonia*" OR "eswatini" OR "swaziland" OR "swazi" OR "gabon" OR "gabonese" OR "gabonaise" OR "gambia*" OR "ghana*" OR "gibralta*" OR "greece" OR "greek" OR "honduras" OR "honduran$" OR "hungary" OR "hungarian$" OR "india" OR "indian$" OR "indonesia*" OR "iran" OR "iranian$" OR "iraq" OR "iraqi$" OR "isle of man" OR "jordan" OR "jordanian$" OR "kenya*" OR "korea*" OR "kosovo" OR "kosovan$" OR "latvia*" OR "lebanon" OR "lebanese" OR "libya*" OR "lithuania*" OR "macau" OR "macao" OR "macanese" OR "malagasy" OR "malaysia*" OR "malay federation" OR "malaya federation" OR "malta" OR "maltese" OR "mauritania" OR "mauritanian$" OR "mexico" OR "mexican$" OR "montenegr*" OR "morocco" OR "moroccan$" OR "namibia*" OR "netherlands antilles" OR "nicaragua*" OR "nigeria*" OR "oman" OR "omani$" OR "muscat" OR "pakistan*" OR "panama*" OR "papua new guinea*" OR "peru" OR "peruvian$" OR "philippine$" OR "philipine$" OR "phillipine$" OR "phillippine$" OR "filipino$" OR "filipina$" OR "poland" OR "polish" OR "portugal" OR "portugese" OR "romania*" OR "russia" OR "russian$" OR "polynesia*" OR "saudi arabia*" OR "serbia*" OR "slovakia*" OR "slovak republic" OR "slovenia*" OR "melanesia*" OR "south africa*" OR "sri lanka*" OR "dutch guiana" OR "netherlands guiana" OR "syria" OR "syrian$" OR "thailand" OR "thai" OR "tunisia*" OR "ukraine" OR "ukrainian$" OR "uruguay*" OR "venezuela*" OR "vietnam*" OR "west bank" OR "gaza" OR "palestine" OR "palestinian$" OR "yugoslavia*" OR "turkish" OR "turkey"
            OR "Angola*" OR "Benin" OR "beninese" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burkina fasso" OR "burkinese" OR "burkinabe" OR "Burundi*" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Congo" OR "congolese" OR "Djibouti*" OR "Eritrea*" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Gambia*" OR "Guinea" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "guinean" OR "Lesotho" OR "lesothan*" OR "Liberia*" OR "Madagasca*" OR "Malawi*" OR "Mali" OR "malian" OR "Mauritania*" OR "Mozambique" OR "mozambican$" OR "Niger" OR "Rwanda*" OR "Sao Tome and Principe" OR "Senegal*" OR "Sierra Leone*" OR "Somalia*" OR "South Sudan" OR "Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Togo" OR "togolese" OR "tongan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Tanzania*" OR "Zambia*" OR "Cambodia*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Lao People’s democratic republic" OR "Laos" OR "Myanmar" OR "myanma" OR "Solomon islands" OR "Timor Leste" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan$" OR "Bangladesh*" OR "Bhutan*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Yemen*" OR "Haiti*"
            )
      )
      NEAR/15
        ("establish*" OR "propose*" OR "proposing" OR "design*" OR "develop" OR "build" OR "implement*"
        OR "integrat*" OR "incorporat*" OR "include" OR "inclusion"
        )
    )
)
 

Target 3.8

3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all

3.8.1 Coverage of essential health services

3.8.2 Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income

This target is interpreted to include research about 1) Achieving universal health coverage and access to healthcare, 2) Avoiding financial obstacles/hardship in healthcare, including access to essential medicines and vaccines

Phrase 1

This phrase covers achieving universal health coverage. The basic structure is universal health coverage + action.

"Achieving" is interpreted broadly to cover both establishment, expansion, maintenance and obstacles. for universal health coverage finds a variety of phrases which are related to this, e.g. "policies for", "legal framework for", "tool for".

TS =
(
  ("universal health coverage" OR "universal healthcare" OR "universal health care")
  NEAR/5
    ("establish*" OR "propose*" OR "design*" OR "implement*" OR "plan" OR "plans" OR "planned" OR "planning" OR "adopt*" OR "build*" OR "solution$" OR "architect$" OR "develop"
    OR "path$" OR "pathway$" OR "road$" OR "route" OR "roadmap"  OR "toward$" OR "way to"
    OR "scal* up" OR "accelerat*" OR "expand" OR "expansion*" OR "broaden*" OR "advancing" OR "advance"
    OR "achiev*" OR "attain*" OR "provision" OR "provid*" OR "deliver"
    OR "maintain*" OR "sustain*" OR "support" OR "strengthen*"
    OR "barrier$" OR "obstacle$" OR "financing"
    OR "reality" OR "promise$" OR "realization" OR "priority" OR "prioriti*"
    OR "for universal health coverage"
    )
)
 

Phrase 2

This phrase covers access to healthcare, essential medicines and vaccines. The basic structure is health care/medications + access/affordability/quality + action

treatment is not used alone, as there are technical biomedical works about e.g. barrier treatments. Under access terms, we have included health equity and vaccine equity, as we consider it to cover the idea of "medicines and vaccines for all".

TS =
(
  ("health care" OR "healthcare" OR "health service$" OR "medical service$" OR "medical care" OR "health coverage"
  OR "family planning" OR "reproductive health" OR "sexual health" OR "reproductive healthcare" OR "sexual healthcare"
  OR "vaccine$" OR "immuni$ation"
  OR (("essential" OR "basic" OR "life saving" OR "necessary" OR "emergency") NEAR/3 ("medicines" OR "medication$" OR "treatment*" OR "therap*"))
  OR "treatment access" OR "access to treatment$"
  )
  NEAR/15
      ("health equity" OR "equity in health*" OR "health care equity" OR "equity in healthcare" OR "health for all" OR "vaccine equity"
      OR
        (
          ("access*" OR "barrier$" OR "obstacle$"
          OR "afford" OR "affordab*" OR "low cost" OR "inexpensive" OR "free service$" OR "free of charge" OR "voucher$"
          OR "unaffordab*" OR "high price$" OR "costly" OR "debt" OR "financial risk$" OR "financial burden$" OR "financial hardship" OR "household expenditure$" OR "medical expenditure$" OR "medical expenses" OR "medical bill$" OR "medical cost$" OR "out of pocket"
          OR "microinsurance"
          OR "quality medicines" OR "quality care" OR "quality of care" OR "quality health care"
          )
          NEAR/5
              ("improv*" OR "increas*" OR "enhanc*"
              OR "expand*" OR "provide" OR "provision" OR "promot*" OR "ensur*"
              OR "dismant*" OR "remov*" OR "avoid*" OR "combat" OR "fight*" OR "overcome" OR "support*" OR "advoca*" OR "address"
              OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "reduc*" OR "mitigat*"
              OR "policy" OR "policies" OR "initiative$" OR "program*" OR "strateg*"
              OR "more affordable"
              )
        )
      )
)

Target 3.9

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

3.9.1 Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution

3.9.2 Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)

3.9.3 Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning

This query consists of 2 phrases. The phrases are similar, but phrase 2 includes terms which need to be limited to humans.

The target is interpreted to cover research about reducing deaths and illnesses due to pollution/contamination of water, air or soil with chemicals/substances or pathogens. In light of indicator 3.9.2, we also include research about deaths and illnesses and poor sanitation (e.g. contamination in the water source, or spread of disease between people due to lack of WASH facilities).

We were slightly unsure whether food poisoning/contaminated food should be included - it is not air, soil or water, but is related to hygiene/sanitation. So far, it is included. The High-level Political Forum thematic review for SDG 3 (ECESA plus members, 2017) mentions food in reference to WASH:

"These services need to be accompanied by adequate hygiene practices such as handwashing after defecation or before food preparation and intake..."

Phrase 1

The basic structure is contamination/toxins + disease/mortality + action.

In the disease/mortality terms, only terms for mortality are included. survival is not - there are few results and they often concern animals.

Specific types of air pollution were added from WHO factsheets on ambient air pollution (WHO, 2021a) and household air pollution (WHO, 2021b). air pollution will find both ambient and indoor/household air pollution. Note that pollution alone is covered in phrase 2.

poisoning* reflects a disease/mortality/health outcome, thus is included with the disease/mortality terms. This improves the results by vastly increasing recall of those about reducing carbon monoxide poisoning. unintentional OR accidental NEAR/3 poisoning$ is additionally included in the contamination/toxins terms; thus the string will find e.g. "reducing accidental poisonings", "preventing unintentional child poisoning" or "treating accidental drug poisonings".

The combination of gases with NEAR/15 "pollution" OR "poisoning$" is necessary because there are medical papers that discuss gases in terms of diagnosis or treatment (e.g. diffusion lung capacity of CO). The chemical abbreviations for the gases (e.g. SO2) are not used, as they result in technical articles where sorbents or fuel cells can be "poisoned".

hygiene is not used alone as there are many results about oral hygiene which are probably too broad (not to do with pollution/contamination). sanitation is also limited here, to remove animal results, and included more broadly in phrase 2.

TS =
(
  (
    "air pollution" OR "PM2.5" OR "PM10" OR "particulate matter" OR "ozone"
    OR
    (
      ("nitrogen dioxide" OR "sulfur dioxide" OR "sulphur dioxide" OR "carbon monoxide" OR "volatile organic compounds")
      NEAR/15 ("pollution" OR "poisoning$")
    )
    OR "smoke pollution" OR "secondhand smok*" OR "second hand smok*" OR "involuntary smoking" OR "passive smoking"
    OR
    (         
      ("drinking water" OR "potable water" OR "water source$")
      NEAR/3 ("unsafe" OR "safe" OR "contaminated" OR "contamination" OR "pollut*" OR "clean")
    )
    OR "poor hygiene" OR "good hygiene" OR "hand hygiene" OR "personal hygiene" OR "hygiene practice$" OR "hygiene intervention$"
    OR "handwashing"
    OR "poor sanitation" OR "*adequate sanitation" OR "good sanitation" OR "sanitation facilities"
    OR "water, sanitation and hygiene"
    OR
    (
      ("food" OR "foods")
      NEAR/3 ("unsafe" OR "contaminated" OR "contamination" OR "sanitation")
    )
    OR "food poisoning$" OR "foodborne pathogens"
    OR ("poisoning$" NEAR/3 ("unintentional" OR "accidental"))
  )
  NEAR/15
      (
        ("mortality" OR "death$" OR "illness*" OR "disease$" OR "morbidity" OR "poisoning$")
        NEAR/5
          ("prevent*" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "lowering" OR "lowered" OR "limiting" OR "limit" OR "eliminat*" OR "alleviat*" OR "avoid*"
          OR "treat*" OR "remov*" OR "clean up" OR "cleanup"
          )
      )
)      
 

Phrase 2

The basic structure is pollutants/contamination + disease/mortality + action + humans.

This phrase was created as certain pollutants/contamination terms often give results for animals; thus they are combined with terms for humans. Certain diseases are also included in these terms for humans, because they are nearly always used in the context of humans and relevant for this topic.

Specific chemicals were added from the WHO list of chemicals of major public health concern (WHO, 2020b). Although the list specifies "highly hazardous pesticides", pesticides generally are searched for (research on limiting the health effects of all pesticides is considered relevant). lead must be searched for as part of a phrase, due to its use as a verb. Additional terms were added from the SDG topic page for chemicals and waste (Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform, n.d.). contamination is limited to water contamination and soil contamination (+ variants) to limit to the environment. Contamination of drinking water is covered in phrase 1 (here water alone is sufficient, due to the human terms). heavy metals as a general term is not included - many results seemed to be toxicity in plants, despite the human terms.

poisoning$ OR poisoned and *toxicity (covers gene/neuro/gonadotoxicity) were added to the mortality terms, as, in combination with the human terms, they are mostly used in the context of human illnesses. fluorosis, is a disease from excess fluoride.

TS =
(
  (
    ("hazardous chemical$" OR "hazardous material$" OR "hazardous substance$" OR "hazardous waste$"
    OR "pollution"
    OR "soil contamination" OR "contamination of soil$"
    OR "water contamination" OR "contamination of water"
    OR "arsenic"
    OR "asbestos"
    OR "benzene"
    OR "cadmium"
    OR "dioxin$"
    OR "mercury"
    OR "fluoride"
    OR "pesticide$"
    OR "lead poison*" OR "lead *toxicity" OR "lead mediated *toxicity" OR "lead induced *toxicity" OR "lead exposure" OR "lead carcinogen*" OR "blood lead"
    OR "radioactive waste$"
    OR "persistent organic pollutant$"
    OR "sanitation"
    )
    NEAR/15
        (
          ("mortality" OR "death$" OR "illness*" OR "disease$" OR "morbidity"
          OR "*toxicity" OR "poisoning$" OR "poisoned" OR "fluorosis"
          )
          NEAR/5
            ("prevent*" OR "combat*" OR "tackl*" OR "reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "minimi*" OR "lowering" OR "lowered" OR "limiting" OR "limit" OR "eliminat*" OR "alleviat*" OR "avoid*"
            OR "treat*" OR "remov*" OR "clean up" OR "cleanup"
            )
        )
)
  AND
      ("humans" OR "humanity" OR "human" OR "people" OR "person$"
        OR "children" OR "child" OR "under fives" OR "infant$" OR "toddler$" OR "babies" OR "teenager$" OR "adolescent$" OR "girls" OR "boys"
        OR "elderly" OR "adult$" OR "women" OR "men" OR "woman" OR "man" OR "girls" OR "boys"
        OR "rural" OR "urban" OR "city" OR "cities" OR "town$" OR "village$" OR "countr*" OR "nation$" OR "develop* state$"
        OR "patient$" OR "hospital*"
        OR "premature death$" OR "premature mortality"
        OR "neglected tropical disease$" OR "diarrhoea*" OR "diarrhea*"
      )
)
 

Target 3.a

3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate

3.a.1 Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older

This target is interpreted to cover research about reducing of tobacco use and production, or implementing the WHO FCTC. WHO FCTC is a treaty from 2003 which aims to reduce tobacco use, via reducing supply and demand. There are several strands of tobacco control measures, including protecting public health policy from industry influence, tax measures, regulation of contents of tobacco products, regulation of packaging and labelling, warnings about risks, bans on advertising and sales to minors, support for those with addictions, support for alternatives for those who grow tobacco, and reductions in illicit trade of tobacco (Regional Office for Europe, n.d.)

This query consists of 3 phrases.

Phrase 1

This phrase finds works referring to the FCTC. We assume that any research specifically mentioning this framework are likely to be about tobacco reduction.

TS = ("Framework convention on tobacco control" OR "WHO FCTC")

Phrase 2

This phrase finds works about strengthening/implementing reduction and preventative measures around tobacco. The basic structure is tobacco + reduction/control + action

We do not limit terminology to tobacco "use", as the FCTC also refers to tobacco control and reduction in supply, advertising, packaging regulation etc. tobacco OR smoking OR cigarette$ will cover many terms here (e.g. cigarette packaging, smoking cessation, tobacco use/consumption/advertising).

reduc* tobacco etc. will find both reducing tobacco use and production. It is added as a phrase as some may discuss this without being combined with the "implement" terms, but reduc* + tobacco alone is too broad (e.g. "tobacco reduces lung function" - not relevant). Phrase 3 deals with tobacco production in more depth.

developing finds some results about developing countries, rather than developing interventions/policy, but this is hard to avoid and we lose many relevant results if cutting it.

TS =
(
  (
    (
      ("tobacco" OR "smoking" OR "cigarette$")
      NEAR/5
        (
          ("reduc*" OR "control" OR "ban" OR "bans" OR "banning" OR "prohibiting" OR "prohibit"
          OR "legislation" OR "policy" OR "policies" OR "regulat*" OR "law" OR "strateg*" OR "intervention$"
          OR "tax" OR "taxes" OR "taxation"
          OR "health warning$"
          OR "smoking cessation" OR "quitting" OR "services" OR "cessation service" OR "cessation program*" OR "alternative$"
          )
          NEAR/5
            ("implement*" OR "introduc*" OR "establish*" OR "adopt*" OR "propos*" OR "uptake"
            OR "improv*" OR "strengthen*" OR "increas*" OR "achiev*"
            OR "develop" OR "developing" OR "build" OR "building"
            )
        )
    )
  OR "reduc* tobacco" OR "reduc* smoking" OR "decreas* tobacco"
  OR "reduce dependence on"
  )
  AND ("tobacco")
)

Phrase 3

This phrase covers research about alternatives to tobacco production. The basic structure is tobacco farming + alternatives + action.

TS=
(
  ("tobacco farm*" OR "tobacco production" OR "tobacco growing" OR "tobacco grower$")
  AND
    (
      ("diversif*" OR "alternative crop$" OR "crop substitution"
      OR "alternative livelihood$" OR "alternative sustainable livelihood$"
      )
      NEAR/5
        ("support*" OR "provid*" OR "encourag*" OR "facilitat*" OR "promot*" OR "help"
        OR "implement*" OR "introduc*" OR "establish*" OR "develop*" OR "adopt*" OR "propos*" OR "uptake"
        OR "improv*" OR "strengthen*" OR "increas*" OR "achiev*"
        )
    )
)

Target 3.b

3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non‑communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all

3.b.1 Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme

3.b.2 Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors

3.b.3 Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis

This target is interpreted to cover research about:

  • Support for development of medicines/vaccines for diseases in developing countries or for diseases "primarily affecting" them. For the query, we have interpreted this as neglected tropical diseases. For other diseases it is harder to decide if they are neglected or who they primarily affect. We interpret "support" as financial support as well as cooperation and research partnerships (phrase 1).
  • Access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines on a broad scale in accordance with Doha/TRIPS (phrase 2).

This query consists of 2 phrases.

Phrase 1

The general structure is support + vaccine/medicine development + developing countries. Under support we include terms for financial resources, development partnerships, assistance and sharing. Note that here, development is combined within phrases (e.g. development aid OR development fund) because it is also a part of "vaccine development".

TS =
(
  (
      ("support" OR "financial assist*" OR "economic assist*"
      OR "ODA" OR "development assistance" OR "official development aid"
      OR "development cooperation" OR "development network$" OR "development partnership$"
      OR "cooperation fund$" OR "development spending"
      OR
        (
          ("international" OR "foreign" OR "research" OR "R&D")
          NEAR/3
              ("cooperat*" OR "co-operat*" OR "collaborat*" OR "network$" OR "partnership$"
              OR "aid" OR "assistance" OR "fund$" OR "funding" OR "financing" OR "finance" OR "grant$" OR "investment$" OR "financial support" OR "financial resources"
              )
        )
      OR "investing" OR "invest" OR "funding"
      OR "subsidy" OR "subsidies" OR "subsidi?ing" OR "subsidi?e"
      OR
        (
          ("knowledge" OR "technolog*" OR "technical" OR "research" OR "scientific" OR "R&D")
          NEAR/3 ("transfer" OR "sharing" OR "shared" OR "share" OR "cooperat*" OR "co-operat*" OR "collaborat*" OR "partnership$")
        )
      )
      NEAR/5
          (
            ("develop*" OR "research*" OR "R&D" OR "novel" OR "new")
            NEAR/5 ("medicine$" OR "medication$" OR "therapy" OR "therapies" OR "therapeutic$" OR "vaccin*" OR "drug$" OR "cures" OR "treatment$")
          )
  )
  AND
    ("neglected tropical disease$"
    OR "buruli ulcer"
    OR "chagas"
    OR "dengue"
    OR "chikungunya"
    OR "dracunculiasis" OR "guinea-worm disease"
    OR "echinococcosis"
    OR "foodborne trematodiases"
    OR "human african trypanosomiasis" OR "sleeping sickness"
    OR "leishmaniasis"
    OR "leprosy"
    OR "lymphatic filariasis"
    OR "mycetoma" OR "chromoblastomycosis" OR "deep mycoses"
    OR "onchocerciasis" OR "river blindness"
    OR "rabies"
    OR "scabies"
    OR "schistosomiasis"
    OR "soil-transmitted helminthias*" OR "hookworm$" OR "roundworm$" OR "whipworm$" OR "Ascaris lumbricoides" OR "Trichuris trichiura" OR "Necator americanus" OR "Ancylostoma duodenale"
    OR "snakebite envenoming"
    OR "taeniasis" OR "cysticercosis"
    OR "trachoma"
    OR "yaws"
    OR "least developed countr*" OR "least developed nation$"
    OR "developing countr*" OR "developing nation$" OR "developing states" OR "developing world"
    OR "less developed countr*" OR "less developed nation$"
    OR "under developed countr*" OR "under developed nation$" OR "underdeveloped countr*" OR "underdeveloped nation$"
    OR "underserved countr*" OR "underserved nation$"
    OR "deprived countr*" OR "deprived nation$"
    OR "middle income countr*" OR "middle income nation$"
    OR "low income countr*" OR "low income nation$" OR "lower income countr*" OR "lower income nation$"
    OR "poor countr*" OR "poor nation$" OR "poorer countr*" OR "poorer nation$"
    OR "lmic" OR "lmics" OR "third world" OR "global south" OR "lami countr*" OR "transitional countr*" OR "emerging economies" OR "emerging nation$"
    OR "Angola*" OR "Benin" OR "beninese" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burkina fasso" OR "burkinese" OR "burkinabe" OR "Burundi*" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Congo" OR "congolese" OR "Djibouti*" OR "Eritrea*" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Gambia*" OR "Guinea" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "guinean" OR "Lesotho" OR "lesothan*" OR "Liberia*" OR "Madagasca*" OR "Malawi*" OR "Mali" OR "malian" OR "Mauritania*" OR "Mozambique" OR "mozambican$" OR "Niger" OR "Rwanda*" OR "Sao Tome and Principe" OR "Senegal*" OR "Sierra Leone*" OR "Somalia*" OR "South Sudan" OR "Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Togo" OR "togolese" OR "tongan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Tanzania*" OR "Zambia*" OR "Cambodia*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Lao People’s democratic republic" OR "Laos" OR "Myanmar" OR "myanma" OR "Solomon islands" OR "Timor Leste" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan$" OR "Bangladesh*" OR "Bhutan*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Yemen*" OR "Haiti*"
    OR "Antigua and Barbuda" OR "Antigua & Barbuda" OR "antiguan$" OR "Bahamas" OR "Bahrain" OR "Barbados" OR "Belize" OR "Cabo Verde" OR "Cape Verde" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Cuba" OR "cuban$" OR "Dominica*" OR "Dominican Republic" OR "Micronesia*" OR "Fiji" OR "fijian$" OR "Grenada*" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "Guyana*" OR "Haiti*" OR "Jamaica*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Maldives" OR "maldivian$" OR "Marshall Islands" OR "Mauritius" OR "mauritian$" OR "Nauru*" OR "Palau*" OR "Papua New Guinea*" OR "Saint Kitts and Nevis" OR "st kitts and nevis" OR "Saint Lucia*" OR "St Lucia*" OR "Vincent and the Grenadines" OR "Vincent & the Grenadines" OR "Samoa*" OR "Sao Tome" OR "Seychelles" OR "seychellois*" OR "Singapore*" OR "Solomon Islands" OR "Surinam*" OR "Timor-Leste" OR "timorese" OR "Tonga*" OR "Trinidad and Tobago" OR "Trinidad & Tobago" OR "trinidadian$" OR "tobagonian$" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Anguilla*" OR "Aruba*" OR "Bermuda*" OR "Cayman Islands" OR "Northern Mariana$" OR "Cook Islands" OR "Curacao" OR "French Polynesia*" OR "Guadeloupe*" OR "Guam" OR "Martinique" OR "Montserrat" OR "New Caledonia*" OR "Niue" OR "Puerto Rico" OR "puerto rican" OR "Sint Maarten" OR "Turks and Caicos" OR "Turks & Caicos" OR "Virgin Islands"
    OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan*" OR "Armenia*" OR "Azerbaijan*" OR "Bhutan" OR "bhutanese" OR "Bolivia*" OR "Botswana*" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burundi" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Eswatini" OR "eswantian" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Kazakhstan*" OR "kazakh" OR "Kyrgyzstan" OR "Kyrgyz*" OR "kirghizia" OR "kirgizstan" OR "Lao People’s Democratic Republic" OR "Laos" OR "Lesotho" OR "Malawi" OR "malawian" OR "Mali" OR "Mongolia*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Niger" OR "North Macedonia" OR "Republic of Macedonia" OR "Paraguay" OR "Moldova*" OR "Rwanda$" OR "South Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Swaziland" OR "Tajikistan" OR "tadjikistan" OR "tajikistani$" OR "Turkmenistan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Uzbekistan" OR "uzbekistani$" OR "Zambia" OR "zambian$" OR "Zimbabwe*"
    OR "albania*" OR "algeria*" OR "angola*" OR "argentina*" OR "azerbaijan*" OR "bahrain*" OR "belarus*" OR "byelarus*" OR "belorussia" OR "belize*" OR "honduras" OR "honduran" OR "dahomey" OR "bosnia*" OR "herzegovina*" OR "botswana*" OR "bechuanaland" OR "brazil*" OR "brasil*" OR "bulgaria*" OR "upper volta" OR "kampuchea" OR "khmer republic" OR "cameroon*" OR "cameroun" OR "ubangi shari" OR "chile*" OR "china" OR "chinese" OR "colombia*" OR "costa rica*" OR "cote d’ivoire" OR "cote divoire" OR "cote d ivoire" OR "ivory coast" OR "croatia*" OR "cyprus" OR "cypriot" OR "czech" OR "ecuador*" OR "egypt*" OR "united arab republic" OR "el salvador*" OR "estonia*" OR "eswatini" OR "swaziland" OR "swazi" OR "gabon" OR "gabonese" OR "gabonaise" OR "gambia*" OR "ghana*" OR "gibralta*" OR "greece" OR "greek" OR "honduras" OR "honduran$" OR "hungary" OR "hungarian$" OR "india" OR "indian$" OR "indonesia*" OR "iran" OR "iranian$" OR "iraq" OR "iraqi$" OR "isle of man" OR "jordan" OR "jordanian$" OR "kenya*" OR "korea*" OR "kosovo" OR "kosovan$" OR "latvia*" OR "lebanon" OR "lebanese" OR "libya*" OR "lithuania*" OR "macau" OR "macao" OR "macanese" OR "malagasy" OR "malaysia*" OR "malay federation" OR "malaya federation" OR "malta" OR "maltese" OR "mauritania" OR "mauritanian$" OR "mexico" OR "mexican$" OR "montenegr*" OR "morocco" OR "moroccan$" OR "namibia*" OR "netherlands antilles" OR "nicaragua*" OR "nigeria*" OR "oman" OR "omani$" OR "muscat" OR "pakistan*" OR "panama*" OR "papua new guinea*" OR "peru" OR "peruvian$" OR "philippine$" OR "philipine$" OR "phillipine$" OR "phillippine$" OR "filipino$" OR "filipina$" OR "poland" OR "polish" OR "portugal" OR "portugese" OR "romania*" OR "russia" OR "russian$" OR "polynesia*" OR "saudi arabia*" OR "serbia*" OR "slovakia*" OR "slovak republic" OR "slovenia*" OR "melanesia*" OR "south africa*" OR "sri lanka*" OR "dutch guiana" OR "netherlands guiana" OR "syria" OR "syrian$" OR "thailand" OR "thai" OR "tunisia*" OR "ukraine" OR "ukrainian$" OR "uruguay*" OR "venezuela*" OR "vietnam*" OR "west bank" OR "gaza" OR "palestine" OR "palestinian$" OR "yugoslavia*" OR "turkish" OR "turkey"
    )
)

Phrase 2

This phrase concerns access to essential medicines and vaccines. The TRIPS agreement is the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights for all members of the WTO. The Doha declaration was an interpretative statement for TRIPS, added later in 2001, which covers several aspects of its implementation. This includes "compulsory licensing", which can be used to produce medicines without the agreement of the patent holder under certain circumstances. About health, from World Trade Organization, n.d.:

"In the declaration, ministers stress that it is important to implement and interpret the TRIPS Agreement in a way that supports public health — by promoting both access to existing medicines and the creation of new medicines.[...]. It emphasizes that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent member governments from acting to protect public health."

The structure is agreements/IPR + medicines + access. patents is used in the plural as when singular it tends to have specific/biomedical uses. vaccine inequity is included as a term that often refers to inequity in access to vaccines on a global scale (particularly in reference to covid19).

TS =
(
  ("Doha declaration" OR "compulsory licens*" OR "patents" OR "intellectual property" OR "TRIPS agreement")
  AND
    ("pharmaceuticals" OR "medicine$" OR "vaccine$" OR "immuni$ation" OR "essential drug$" OR "medication$"
    OR (("essential" OR "life saving" OR "emergency" OR "health" OR "medical") NEAR/3 ("treatment*" OR "therap*"))
    OR "treatment access" OR "access to treatment$"
    )
  AND
    ("access" OR "accessibility"
    OR "affordab*" OR "low cost" OR "inexpensive" OR "free of charge" OR "unaffordab*" OR "expensive"
    OR "vaccine equity" OR "vaccine inequity"
    )
)

Target 3.c

3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States

3.c.1 Health worker density and distribution

This target is interpreted to cover research about increasing the training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries (phrase 1). It also covers research about increasing health financing in these countries (phrase 2).

This query consists of 2 phrases.

Phrase 1

The basic structure is action + retention/training + health workers + countries

Types of health worker were supplemented from the subcategories under the MeSH category "Health Personnel" (MeSH ID D006282). training and education are separated out as there are many results about "training to improve outcomes..." rather than improving the training itself.

TS =
(
  (
    (
      (
        ("increas*" OR "strengthen*" OR "improv*" OR "enhanc*" OR "expand" OR "implement" OR "establish*" OR "introduc*")
        NEAR/5 ("recruitment" OR "professional development" OR "retention" OR "capacity building" OR "capacity development")
      )
      OR "increase training" OR "improv* training" OR "enhanc* training"
      OR "increase education" OR "improv* education" OR "enhanc* education"
      OR "train more" OR "recruit more" OR "increase trained" OR "increase the number of"
      OR
      (
        ("reduc*" OR "decreas*" OR "prevent*" OR "combat" OR "tackle" OR "stop*" OR "limit*" OR "minimi*")
        NEAR/5 ("human capital flight" OR "brain drain" OR "emigration" OR "turnover" OR "intention to leave")
      )
    )
    NEAR/15
        (
           (
             ("health" OR "healthcare" OR "medical")
             NEAR/3 ("workforce" OR "professional$" OR "worker$" OR "personnel" OR "practitioner$" OR "human resources" OR "student$")
           )
           OR "nurse$" OR "doctor$" OR "physician$"
           OR "Anesthetist$" OR "Audiologist$" OR "Dental Staff" OR "Dentist$" OR "Doula$" OR "Emergency Medical Dispatcher$" OR "Health Educator$" OR "Health Facility Administrator$" OR "Infection Control Practitioner$" OR "Medical Chaperone$" OR "Medical Laboratory Personnel" OR "Nutritionist$" OR "Therapist$" OR "Optometrist$" OR "Pharmacist$" OR "Allergist$" OR "Anesthesiolog*" OR "Cardiolog*" OR "Dermatolog*" OR "Endocrinolog*" OR "Gastroenterolog*" OR "General Practic*" OR "Geriatrician$" OR "gynecologist$" OR "Hospitalist$" OR "Nephrolog*" OR "Neurolog*" OR "Oncolog*" OR "Ophthalmolog*" OR "Otolaryngolog*" OR "midwives" OR "Pathologist$" OR "Pediatric*" OR "Physiatrist$" OR "Pulmonolog*" OR "Radiolog*" OR "Rheumatolog*" OR "surgeon$" OR "Urologist$"
       )
  )
  AND
      ("least developed countr*" OR "least developed nation$" OR
      "developing countr*" OR "developing nation$" OR "developing states" OR "developing world"
      OR "less developed countr*" OR "less developed nation$"
      OR "under developed countr*" OR "under developed nation$" OR "underdeveloped countr*" OR "underdeveloped nation$"
      OR "underserved countr*" OR "underserved nation$"
      OR "deprived countr*" OR "deprived nation$"
      OR "middle income countr*" OR "middle income nation$"
      OR "low income countr*" OR "low income nation$" OR "lower income countr*" OR "lower income nation$"
      OR "poor countr*" OR "poor nation$" OR "poorer countr*" OR "poorer nation$"
      OR "lmic" OR "lmics" OR "third world" OR "global south" OR "lami countr*" OR "transitional countr*" OR "emerging economies" OR "emerging nation$"
      OR "Angola*" OR "Benin" OR "beninese" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burkina fasso" OR "burkinese" OR "burkinabe" OR "Burundi*" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Congo" OR "congolese" OR "Djibouti*" OR "Eritrea*" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Gambia*" OR "Guinea" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "guinean" OR "Lesotho" OR "lesothan*" OR "Liberia*" OR "Madagasca*" OR "Malawi*" OR "Mali" OR "malian" OR "Mauritania*" OR "Mozambique" OR "mozambican$" OR "Niger" OR "Rwanda*" OR "Sao Tome and Principe" OR "Senegal*" OR "Sierra Leone*" OR "Somalia*" OR "South Sudan" OR "Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Togo" OR "togolese" OR "tongan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Tanzania*" OR "Zambia*" OR "Cambodia*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Lao People’s democratic republic" OR "Laos" OR "Myanmar" OR "myanma" OR "Solomon islands" OR "Timor Leste" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan$" OR "Bangladesh*" OR "Bhutan*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Yemen*" OR "Haiti*"
      OR "Antigua and Barbuda" OR "Antigua & Barbuda" OR "antiguan$" OR "Bahamas" OR "Bahrain" OR "Barbados" OR "Belize" OR "Cabo Verde" OR "Cape Verde" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Cuba" OR "cuban$" OR "Dominica*" OR "Dominican Republic" OR "Micronesia*" OR "Fiji" OR "fijian$" OR "Grenada*" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "Guyana*" OR "Haiti*" OR "Jamaica*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Maldives" OR "maldivian$" OR "Marshall Islands" OR "Mauritius" OR "mauritian$" OR "Nauru*" OR "Palau*" OR "Papua New Guinea*" OR "Saint Kitts and Nevis" OR "st kitts and nevis" OR "Saint Lucia*" OR "St Lucia*" OR "Vincent and the Grenadines" OR "Vincent & the Grenadines" OR "Samoa*" OR "Sao Tome" OR "Seychelles" OR "seychellois*" OR "Singapore*" OR "Solomon Islands" OR "Surinam*" OR "Timor-Leste" OR "timorese" OR "Tonga*" OR "Trinidad and Tobago" OR "Trinidad & Tobago" OR "trinidadian$" OR "tobagonian$" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Anguilla*" OR "Aruba*" OR "Bermuda*" OR "Cayman Islands" OR "Northern Mariana$" OR "Cook Islands" OR "Curacao" OR "French Polynesia*" OR "Guadeloupe*" OR "Guam" OR "Martinique" OR "Montserrat" OR "New Caledonia*" OR "Niue" OR "Puerto Rico" OR "puerto rican" OR "Sint Maarten" OR "Turks and Caicos" OR "Turks & Caicos" OR "Virgin Islands"
      OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan*" OR "Armenia*" OR "Azerbaijan*" OR "Bhutan" OR "bhutanese" OR "Bolivia*" OR "Botswana*" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burundi" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Eswatini" OR "eswantian" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Kazakhstan*" OR "kazakh" OR "Kyrgyzstan" OR "Kyrgyz*" OR "kirghizia" OR "kirgizstan" OR "Lao People’s Democratic Republic" OR "Laos" OR "Lesotho" OR "Malawi" OR "malawian" OR "Mali" OR "Mongolia*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Niger" OR "North Macedonia" OR "Republic of Macedonia" OR "Paraguay" OR "Moldova*" OR "Rwanda$" OR "South Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Swaziland" OR "Tajikistan" OR "tadjikistan" OR "tajikistani$" OR "Turkmenistan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Uzbekistan" OR "uzbekistani$" OR "Zambia" OR "zambian$" OR "Zimbabwe*"
      OR "albania*" OR "algeria*" OR "angola*" OR "argentina*" OR "azerbaijan*" OR "bahrain*" OR "belarus*" OR "byelarus*" OR "belorussia" OR "belize*" OR "honduras" OR "honduran" OR "dahomey" OR "bosnia*" OR "herzegovina*" OR "botswana*" OR "bechuanaland" OR "brazil*" OR "brasil*" OR "bulgaria*" OR "upper volta" OR "kampuchea" OR "khmer republic" OR "cameroon*" OR "cameroun" OR "ubangi shari" OR "chile*" OR "china" OR "chinese" OR "colombia*" OR "costa rica*" OR "cote d’ivoire" OR "cote divoire" OR "cote d ivoire" OR "ivory coast" OR "croatia*" OR "cyprus" OR "cypriot" OR "czech" OR "ecuador*" OR "egypt*" OR "united arab republic" OR "el salvador*" OR "estonia*" OR "eswatini" OR "swaziland" OR "swazi" OR "gabon" OR "gabonese" OR "gabonaise" OR "gambia*" OR "ghana*" OR "gibralta*" OR "greece" OR "greek" OR "honduras" OR "honduran$" OR "hungary" OR "hungarian$" OR "india" OR "indian$" OR "indonesia*" OR "iran" OR "iranian$" OR "iraq" OR "iraqi$" OR "isle of man" OR "jordan" OR "jordanian$" OR "kenya*" OR "korea*" OR "kosovo" OR "kosovan$" OR "latvia*" OR "lebanon" OR "lebanese" OR "libya*" OR "lithuania*" OR "macau" OR "macao" OR "macanese" OR "malagasy" OR "malaysia*" OR "malay federation" OR "malaya federation" OR "malta" OR "maltese" OR "mauritania" OR "mauritanian$" OR "mexico" OR "mexican$" OR "montenegr*" OR "morocco" OR "moroccan$" OR "namibia*" OR "netherlands antilles" OR "nicaragua*" OR "nigeria*" OR "oman" OR "omani$" OR "muscat" OR "pakistan*" OR "panama*" OR "papua new guinea*" OR "peru" OR "peruvian$" OR "philippine$" OR "philipine$" OR "phillipine$" OR "phillippine$" OR "filipino$" OR "filipina$" OR "poland" OR "polish" OR "portugal" OR "portugese" OR "romania*" OR "russia" OR "russian$" OR "polynesia*" OR "saudi arabia*" OR "serbia*" OR "slovakia*" OR "slovak republic" OR "slovenia*" OR "melanesia*" OR "south africa*" OR "sri lanka*" OR "dutch guiana" OR "netherlands guiana" OR "syria" OR "syrian$" OR "thailand" OR "thai" OR "tunisia*" OR "ukraine" OR "ukrainian$" OR "uruguay*" OR "venezuela*" OR "vietnam*" OR "west bank" OR "gaza" OR "palestine" OR "palestinian$" OR "yugoslavia*" OR "turkish" OR "turkey"      
      )
)

Phrase 2

The basic structure is action + financing + health sector + countries. This is difficult to get accurate with action terms as there are a lot of results about e.g. funding improving coverage.

TS =
(
  (
    (
      ("increas*" OR "strengthen*" OR "improv*" OR "enhanc*" OR "expand" OR "expansion*"
      OR "establish*" OR "propose*" OR "design*" OR "implement*" OR "introduc*"  
      )
      NEAR/5
          ("financing" OR "invest" OR "investment$" OR "investing" OR "funding" OR "funds"
          OR "health spending" OR "health care spending" OR "health budget" OR "public spending" OR "government spending"
          OR "financial assist*" OR "economic assist*" OR "financial support" OR "financial resources"
          OR "subsidy" OR "subsidies" OR "subsidi?ing" OR "subsidi?e"
          OR "ODA" OR "cooperation fund$" OR "development spending"
          OR (("international" OR "development" OR "foreign") NEAR/3 ("aid" OR "assistance" OR "finance" OR "grant$"))
          )
    )
    NEAR/15
        ("health sector" OR "health financing" OR "health budget" OR "health spending"
        OR "health service$" OR "healthcare" OR "health care" OR "medical care"
        OR "medical research" OR "health research" OR "health R&D" OR "medical R&D"
        )   
  )
  AND
    ("least developed countr*" OR "least developed nation$" OR
    "developing countr*" OR "developing nation$" OR "developing states" OR "developing world"
    OR "less developed countr*" OR "less developed nation$"
    OR "under developed countr*" OR "under developed nation$" OR "underdeveloped countr*" OR "underdeveloped nation$"
    OR "underserved countr*" OR "underserved nation$"
    OR "deprived countr*" OR "deprived nation$"
    OR "middle income countr*" OR "middle income nation$"
    OR "low income countr*" OR "low income nation$" OR "lower income countr*" OR "lower income nation$"
    OR "poor countr*" OR "poor nation$" OR "poorer countr*" OR "poorer nation$"
    OR "lmic" OR "lmics" OR "third world" OR "global south" OR "lami countr*" OR "transitional countr*" OR "emerging economies" OR "emerging nation$"
    OR "Angola*" OR "Benin" OR "beninese" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burkina fasso" OR "burkinese" OR "burkinabe" OR "Burundi*" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Congo" OR "congolese" OR "Djibouti*" OR "Eritrea*" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Gambia*" OR "Guinea" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "guinean" OR "Lesotho" OR "lesothan*" OR "Liberia*" OR "Madagasca*" OR "Malawi*" OR "Mali" OR "malian" OR "Mauritania*" OR "Mozambique" OR "mozambican$" OR "Niger" OR "Rwanda*" OR "Sao Tome and Principe" OR "Senegal*" OR "Sierra Leone*" OR "Somalia*" OR "South Sudan" OR "Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Togo" OR "togolese" OR "tongan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Tanzania*" OR "Zambia*" OR "Cambodia*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Lao People’s democratic republic" OR "Laos" OR "Myanmar" OR "myanma" OR "Solomon islands" OR "Timor Leste" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan$" OR "Bangladesh*" OR "Bhutan*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Yemen*" OR "Haiti*"
    OR "Antigua and Barbuda" OR "Antigua & Barbuda" OR "antiguan$" OR "Bahamas" OR "Bahrain" OR "Barbados" OR "Belize" OR "Cabo Verde" OR "Cape Verde" OR "Comoros" OR "comoro islands" OR "iles comores" OR "Cuba" OR "cuban$" OR "Dominica*" OR "Dominican Republic" OR "Micronesia*" OR "Fiji" OR "fijian$" OR "Grenada*" OR "Guinea-Bissau" OR "Guyana*" OR "Haiti*" OR "Jamaica*" OR "Kiribati*" OR "Maldives" OR "maldivian$" OR "Marshall Islands" OR "Mauritius" OR "mauritian$" OR "Nauru*" OR "Palau*" OR "Papua New Guinea*" OR "Saint Kitts and Nevis" OR "st kitts and nevis" OR "Saint Lucia*" OR "St Lucia*" OR "Vincent and the Grenadines" OR "Vincent & the Grenadines" OR "Samoa*" OR "Sao Tome" OR "Seychelles" OR "seychellois*" OR "Singapore*" OR "Solomon Islands" OR "Surinam*" OR "Timor-Leste" OR "timorese" OR "Tonga*" OR "Trinidad and Tobago" OR "Trinidad & Tobago" OR "trinidadian$" OR "tobagonian$" OR "Tuvalu*" OR "Vanuatu*" OR "Anguilla*" OR "Aruba*" OR "Bermuda*" OR "Cayman Islands" OR "Northern Mariana$" OR "Cook Islands" OR "Curacao" OR "French Polynesia*" OR "Guadeloupe*" OR "Guam" OR "Martinique" OR "Montserrat" OR "New Caledonia*" OR "Niue" OR "Puerto Rico" OR "puerto rican" OR "Sint Maarten" OR "Turks and Caicos" OR "Turks & Caicos" OR "Virgin Islands"
    OR "Afghanistan" OR "afghan*" OR "Armenia*" OR "Azerbaijan*" OR "Bhutan" OR "bhutanese" OR "Bolivia*" OR "Botswana*" OR "Burkina Faso" OR "Burundi" OR "Central African Republic" OR "Chad" OR "Eswatini" OR "eswantian" OR "Ethiopia*" OR "Kazakhstan*" OR "kazakh" OR "Kyrgyzstan" OR "Kyrgyz*" OR "kirghizia" OR "kirgizstan" OR "Lao People’s Democratic Republic" OR "Laos" OR "Lesotho" OR "Malawi" OR "malawian" OR "Mali" OR "Mongolia*" OR "Nepal*" OR "Niger" OR "North Macedonia" OR "Republic of Macedonia" OR "Paraguay" OR "Moldova*" OR "Rwanda$" OR "South Sudan" OR "sudanese" OR "Swaziland" OR "Tajikistan" OR "tadjikistan" OR "tajikistani$" OR "Turkmenistan" OR "Uganda*" OR "Uzbekistan" OR "uzbekistani$" OR "Zambia" OR "zambian$" OR "Zimbabwe*"
    OR "albania*" OR "algeria*" OR "angola*" OR "argentina*" OR "azerbaijan*" OR "bahrain*" OR "belarus*" OR "byelarus*" OR "belorussia" OR "belize*" OR "honduras" OR "honduran" OR "dahomey" OR "bosnia*" OR "herzegovina*" OR "botswana*" OR "bechuanaland" OR "brazil*" OR "brasil*" OR "bulgaria*" OR "upper volta" OR "kampuchea" OR "khmer republic" OR "cameroon*" OR "cameroun" OR "ubangi shari" OR "chile*" OR "china" OR "chinese" OR "colombia*" OR "costa rica*" OR "cote d’ivoire" OR "cote divoire" OR "cote d ivoire" OR "ivory coast" OR "croatia*" OR "cyprus" OR "cypriot" OR "czech" OR "ecuador*" OR "egypt*" OR "united arab republic" OR "el salvador*" OR "estonia*" OR "eswatini" OR "swaziland" OR "swazi" OR "gabon" OR "gabonese" OR "gabonaise" OR "gambia*" OR "ghana*" OR "gibralta*" OR "greece" OR "greek" OR "honduras" OR "honduran$" OR "hungary" OR "hungarian$" OR "india" OR "indian$" OR "indonesia*" OR "iran" OR "iranian$" OR "iraq" OR "iraqi$" OR "isle of man" OR "jordan" OR "jordanian$" OR "kenya*" OR "korea*" OR "kosovo" OR "kosovan$" OR "latvia*" OR "lebanon" OR "lebanese" OR "libya*" OR "lithuania*" OR "macau" OR "macao" OR "macanese" OR "malagasy" OR "malaysia*" OR "malay federation" OR "malaya federation" OR "malta" OR "maltese" OR "mauritania" OR "mauritanian$" OR "mexico" OR "mexican$" OR "montenegr*" OR "morocco" OR "moroccan$" OR "namibia*" OR "netherlands antilles" OR "nicaragua*" OR "nigeria*" OR "oman" OR "omani$" OR "muscat" OR "pakistan*" OR "panama*" OR "papua new guinea*" OR "peru" OR "peruvian$" OR "philippine$" OR "philipine$" OR "phillipine$" OR "phillippine$" OR "filipino$" OR "filipina$" OR "poland" OR "polish" OR "portugal" OR "portugese" OR "romania*" OR "russia" OR "russian$" OR "polynesia*" OR "saudi arabia*" OR "serbia*" OR "slovakia*" OR "slovak republic" OR "slovenia*" OR "melanesia*" OR "south africa*" OR "sri lanka*" OR "dutch guiana" OR "netherlands guiana" OR "syria" OR "syrian$" OR "thailand" OR "thai" OR "tunisia*" OR "ukraine" OR "ukrainian$" OR "uruguay*" OR "venezuela*" OR "vietnam*" OR "west bank" OR "gaza" OR "palestine" OR "palestinian$" OR "yugoslavia*" OR "turkish" OR "turkey"            
    )
)

Target 3.d

3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks

3.d.1 International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness

3.d.2 Percentage of bloodstream infections due to selected antimicrobial-resistant organisms

This target is interpreted to refer to research about establishing/strengthening health emergency preparedness, particularly in reference to the IHR. From The Global Health Observatory (n.d.):

"Under the IHR, States Parties are obliged to develop and maintain minimum core capacities for surveillance and response, including at points of entry, in order to early detect, assess, notify, and respond to any potential public health events of international concern. [...]. The 13 core capacities are: (1) Legislation and financing; (2) IHR Coordination and National Focal Point Functions; (3) Zoonotic events and the Human-Animal Health Interface; (4) Food safety; (5) Laboratory; (6) Surveillance; (7) Human resources; (8) National Health Emergency Framework; (9) Health Service Provision; (10) Risk communication; (11) Points of entry; (12) Chemical events; (13) Radiation emergencies."

There are also 19 technical areas from the Joint External Evaluation tool, which in addition to the 13 above include antimicrobial resistance, immunization, "national laboratory system", biosafety and biosecurity, "emergency preparedness", "emergency response operations", linking public health and security authorities, medical countermeasures and personnel deployment (WHO 2019b). A number of search terms are taken from this document.

This query consists of 1 phrase. The general structure is health emergencies + preparedness + action

national action plan is a term used in relation to antimicrobial resistance. emergency response covers emergency response plans, etc. health risk is a very general term, so here is limited to national and global health risks, as stated in the target. health emergency is more unambiguously about emergency situations, so is not limited. The NOT statement is required to eliminate results for e.g. crop epidemics.

TS =
(
  (
    ("national health risk$" OR "international health risk$" OR "global health risk$"
    OR "pandemic$" OR "epidemic$" OR "outbreak$"
    OR "medical disaster$" OR "health emergency" OR "health emergencies"
    OR "radiation emergenc*" OR "radiation event$"
    OR "chemical event$" OR "chemical emergenc*"
    OR "zoonotic event$" OR "zoonotic emergenc*"
    OR "food safety" OR "foodborne event$"
    OR "biosecurity event$" OR "biosecurity emergenc*"
    OR "antimicrobial resistan*" OR "antibiotic resistan*" OR "antifungal resistan*"
    )
    NEAR/15  
      (
        ("capacity" OR "early warning*" OR "surveillance" OR "monitoring system$"
        OR "laboratory reporting" OR "laboratory infrastructure" OR "laboratory quality" OR "laboratory system$"
        OR "preparedness" OR "medical preparedness" OR "disaster planning" OR "national health emergency framework" OR "emergency risk assessment$"
        OR "risk reduction" OR "risk management" OR "risk communication"
        OR "emergency management" OR "emergency response" OR "personnel deployment" OR "security authorities"
        OR "vaccination program*" OR "vaccination framework$" OR "immuni$ation program*"
        OR "legislation" OR "policy" OR "policies" OR "financing"
        OR "international health regulations" OR "national focal point$" OR "national action plan*"
        )
        NEAR/5
            ("establish*" OR "propose*" OR "design*" OR "implement*" OR "adopt*" OR "build*" OR "develop"
            OR "path$" OR "pathway$" OR "road$" OR "route" OR "roadmap"  OR "toward$" OR "way to"
            OR "scal* up" OR "expand" OR "expansion*" OR "broaden*" OR "advancing" OR "advance"
            OR "achiev*" OR "attain*" OR "provid*" OR "deliver"
            OR "maintain*" OR "sustain*" OR "support" OR "strengthen*"
            OR "barrier$" OR "obstacle$"
            OR "priority" OR "prioriti*"  
            )
      )
  )
  NOT
      ("blight" OR "plant pathogen$" OR "plant disease$")
)
 

4. Contributions

  • v2019.12: Marta Lorenz, Caroline S. Armitage, Susanne Mikki

  • v1.0.0 Caroline S. Armitage (Oct 2021-Oct 2022)

  • Internal review: Marta Lorenz, Håkon Magne Bjerkan (March 2022)

Specialist input: Awaiting

5. Footnotes

Aurora Universities Network. (2020). Search Queries for “Mapping Research Output to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)” v5.0. [Dataset]. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3817445.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch. https://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/waterborne/ (opens in a new tab) [Accessed 15.10.2021]

ECESA plus members. (2017). 2017 HLPF Thematic Review of SDG3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. United Nations. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/14367SDG3format-rev_MD_OD.pdf (opens in a new tab) [accessed 12.11.2021] (#HLPF)

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2019). The Cancer Dictionary. World Health Organization. http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/WHOdb.htm [accessed 15.11.2019]

National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Cancer Classification. National Institutes of Health. https://training.seer.cancer.gov/disease/categories/classification.html (opens in a new tab) [accessed 15.11.2019]

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2020, August). Commonly Used Drugs Charts. National Institutes of Health. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/commonly-used-drugs-charts (opens in a new tab) [Accessed 26.10.2021]

Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (n.d.). Epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases. World Health Organization. http://www.emro.who.int/pandemic-epidemic-diseases/health-topics/related-health-topics.html [Accessed 18.11.2021]

Regional Office for Europe. (n.d.). WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). World Health Organization. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/tobacco/publications/key-policy-documents/who-framework-convention-on-tobacco-control-who-fctc (opens in a new tab) [accessed 10.11.2021].

Rivest, Maxime; Kashnitsky, Yury; Bédard-Vallée, Alexandre; Campbell, David; Khayat, Paul; Labrosse, Isabelle; Pinheiro, Henrique; Provençal, Simon; Roberge, Guillaume; James, Chris. (2021). Improving the Scopus and Aurora queries to identify research that supports the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2021 V3. [Dataset]. doi: 10.17632/9sxdykm8s4.3

Statistics Division. (2021). Global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A/RES/71/313, E/CN.3/2018/2, E/CN.3/2019/2, E/CN.3/2020/2, E/CN.3/2021/2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/Global%20Indicator%20Framework%20after%202021%20refinement_Eng.pdf (opens in a new tab) [accessed 8 August 2021]

Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform. (n.d.). Chemicals and waste. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/chemicalsandwaste (opens in a new tab) [accessed 12.11.2021]

The Global Health Observatory. (n.d.). Average of 13 International Health Regulations core capacity scores, SPAR version. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/-average-of-13-international-health-regulations-core-capacity-scores-spar-version (opens in a new tab) [accessed 11.11.2021]

United Nations. (2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021). World Economic Situation and Prospects; Statistical Annex. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/document_gem/global-economic-monitoring-unit/world-economic-situation-and-prospects-wesp-report/ (opens in a new tab).

World Health Organization. (1981). Global Strategy for health for all by the year 2000. "Health for all" series, 3. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/38893/9241800038.pdf

World Health Organization. (2018). Noncommunicable diseases. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases (opens in a new tab) [accessed 15.11.2019]

World Health Organization. (2019a). Mental disorders. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-disorders (opens in a new tab) [accessed 29.11.2019]

World Health Organization. (2019b). WHO Benchmarks for International Health Regulation (IHR) Capacities. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311158 (opens in a new tab)

World Health Organization. (2020a). Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021–2030. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/338565 (opens in a new tab)

World Health Organization. (2020b, June 20). 10 chemicals of public health concern.. [Photo story]. https://www.who.int/news-room/photo-story/photo-story-detail/10-chemicals-of-public-health-concern (opens in a new tab) [accessed 15.11.2021]

World Health Organization. (2020c, Dec 9). The top 10 causes of death. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death (opens in a new tab) [accessed 18.11.2021]

World Health Organization. (2021a). Ambient (outdoor) air pollution. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health (opens in a new tab) [accessed 12.11.2021]

World Health Organization. (2021b). Household air pollution and health. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/household-air-pollution-and-health (opens in a new tab) [accessed 12.11.2021]

World Health Organization. (n.d. a). Global Health Observatory data repository: By theme. http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.home [accessed 15.10.2021]

World Health Organization. (n.d. b). Global Health Observatory data repository: By category: Vaccine-preventable communicable diseases. http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.170?lang=en [accessed 15.10.2021].

World Health Organization. (n.d. c). Abortion. [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/health-topics/abortion (opens in a new tab) [accessed 29.10.2021].

World Health Organization. (n.d. d). Health Equity. https://www.who.int/topics/health_equity/en/ (opens in a new tab) [accessed 29.11.2019]

World Trade Organization. (n.d.). The Doha Declaration explained. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/dohaexplained_e.htm (opens in a new tab) [accessed 11.11.2021]